He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his bravery during the June 1919 battle of Tsaritsyn for single-handedly storming and capturing the fortified city of Tsaritsyn, under heavy shell fire in a single tank; this led to the capture of over 40,000 prisoners. Vladimir Lenin's political enemies attributed that decision to his sponsorship by the Foreign Office of Wilhelm II, German Emperor, offered to Lenin in hope that, with a revolution, Russia would withdraw from World War I. He died in 1924 and Joseph Stalin became the new leader. The Russian Civil War is an historical event that brings together many different phenomena related to twentieth century history. There was opposition to the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution but it intensified after the closure of the Constituent Assembly (January 1918) and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918). Making War, Forging Revolution: Russia's Continuum of Crisis, 1914–1921. The Red Army was an army of communists. On 6–7 February Kolchak and his prime minister Victor Pepelyaev were shot and their bodies thrown through the ice of the frozen Angara River, just before the arrival of the White Army in the area. The Leagues of Mohammedam Working People, which Russian settlers and natives who had been sent to work behind the lines for the Tsarist government in 1916 formed in March 1917, had led numerous strikes in the industrial centers throughout September 1917. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. 1964. Save. On 16 December 1917 an armistice was signed between Russia and the Central Powers in Brest-Litovsk and peace talks began. Russian Civil War (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. The unrest began in the early spring of 2011 within the context of Arab Spring protests, with nationwide protests against President Bashar al-Assad's government, whose forces responded with violent crackdowns. The smaller body (Kiev and Odessa troops) withdrew to Odessa and the Crimea, which it had managed to protect from the Bolsheviks during the winter of 1919–1920. A failed military coup by General Lavr Kornilov in September 1917 led to a surge in support for the Bolshevik party, who gained majorities in the soviets, which until then had been controlled by the Socialist Revolutionaries. Then The Bolsheviks took over in October 1917. Learn more about the Russian Revolution … The Red Army captured Kiev on 3 February 1919. 5b Explain which key figures in the Russian Civil War are represented by the three dogs. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia. However, because the Committee lacked representation of the native population and poor Russian settlers, they had to release the Bolshevik prisoners almost immediately due to public outcry, and a successful takeover of this government body took place two months later in November. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians. A Ukrainian nationalist movement was active in Ukraine during the war.  In May 1918, with the support of the Czechoslovak Legion, they took Samara and Saratov, establishing the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly—known as the "Komuch". It lasted from 1918 to 1922. An estimated 100,000 Jews were killed in Ukraine, mostly by the White Army. Alternatively, it might be explained by atypical opportunities for building a rebel organization. The Russian Civil War (Russian: links=no|Гражданская война в России|Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossii; 7 November 1917 – 25 October 1922) was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. Knopf. Many of them were sent into battle without shoes, food, and even weapons. Apart from the Slavs (including the Poles), the Chief of Staff only considered it safe to give arms to Jews (who could not be officers). However, after the Bolshevik destruction of the Provisional Government in Tashkent, Muslim elites formed an autonomous government in Turkestan, commonly called the "Kokand autonomy" (or simply Kokand). The Bolsheviks overcame opposition of rural Russians to Red-Army conscription units by taking hostages and shooting them when necessary in order to force compliance, exactly the same practices used by the White Army officers. Having stated in the November 1917 "Declaration of Rights of Nations of Russia" that any nation under imperial Russian rule should be immediately given the power of self-determination, the Bolsheviks had begun to usurp the power of the Provisional Government in the territories of Central Asia soon after the establishment of the Turkestan Committee in Tashkent. Kornilov was killed in the fighting on 13 April, and Denikin took over command. Trotsky extended the use of the death penalty to the occasional political commissar whose detachment retreated or broke in the face of the enemy. The first attempt to regain power from the Bolsheviks was made by the Kerensky-Krasnov uprising in October 1917. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, capitalism and social … The Red Army was an army of communists. Retreat of the eastern front by White armies lasted three months, until mid-February 1920, when the survivors, after crossing Lake Baikal, reached Chita area and joined Ataman Semenov's forces. By the end of July the Whites had extended their gains westwards, capturing Ekaterinburg on 26 July 1918. With a population of 150 million people, the Russian Empire, seems to have suffered proportionally fewer losses during the war than France or Germany. Out of them, about one million were soldiers of the Red Army. In view of this, on 18 February 1918 the Germans began Operation Faustschlag on the Eastern Front, encountering virtually no resistance in a campaign that lasted 11 days. The White Army opposed the communists. Syria’s war explained from the ... have played a large role in Syria’s war. While the White armies were being routed in Central Russia and the east, they had succeeded in driving Nestor Makhno's anarchist Black Army (formally known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine) out of part of southern Ukraine and the Crimea. Remnants of Kolchak's army reached Transbaikalia and joined Semyonov's troops, forming the Far Eastern army. Despite this success for the Red Army, the White Army's assaults in European Russia and other areas broke communication between Moscow and Tashkent. An attempted invasion of southern Ukraine was rebuffed by the Black Army under Makhno's command. Northwestern Army. Many regions of the Russian Empire were not stable. There were also three main periods of the war. About one million Russians left Russia and went to other countries to live there on a permanent basis. In Ukraine, some groups fighting for a free Ukraine organized themselves as the Green Army. Jump to navigation Jump to search. 1993. Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,000,000 dying of typhus in 1920 alone. British historian Orlando Figes has contended that the root of the Whites' defeat was their inability to dispel the popular image that they were not only associated with Tsarist Russia, but supportive of a Tsarist restoration, as well. In Siberia, Admiral Kolchak's army had disintegrated. Jean-Jacques. The Bolsheviks won the war, but the lack of food meant that between 3 and 10 million people died of hunger. The Tsar abdicated in March 1917. Learn more about the Russian … The anti-communists and their White Army killed at least 50,000 communists. The Bolsheviks attempted to take control of the Committee in Tashkent on 12 September 1917 but it was unsuccessful, and many leaders were arrested. The Black Army, which counted numerous Jews and Ukrainian peasants in its ranks, played a key part in halting Denikin's White Army offensive towards Moscow during 1919, later ejecting White forces from Crimea. The civil war occurred because after November 1917, many groups had formed that opposed Lenin’s Bolsheviks. With the end of the war the Communist Party no longer faced an acute military threat to its existence and power. Greenhill Books. Book: Daniels, Robert V.. A Documentary History of Communism in Russia: From Lenin to Gorbachev. In June the Red Army first checked Kolchak's advance. By the fall of 1918 anti-Bolshevik White forces in the east included the People's Army (Komuch), the Siberian Army (of the Siberian Provisional Government) and insurgent Cossack units of Orenburg, Ural, Siberia, Semirechye, Baikal, Amur and Ussuri Cossacks, nominally under the orders of Gen. V.G. harv. In July 1919 the Red Army suffered another reverse after a mass defection of units in the Crimea to the anarchist Black Army under Nestor Makhno, enabling anarchist forces to consolidate power in Ukraine. Western socialists had promptly arrived from France and from the UK to convince the Russians to continue the fight, but could not change the new pacifist mood of Russia. While resistance to the Red Guard began on the very day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the instinct of one party rule became a catalyst for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new Soviet government. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia. The SRs created their own republic in Volga but their socialist army was beaten. In total, the conflict may have cost as many as 12 million lives. Book: Rosenthal, Reigo. There are many causes of the Somali civil war and what is still fueling it up to today but I will just focus on some of the root causes like dictatorship, clan system, bad economy, and territorial problems. The Red 5th Army, led by the capable commander Tukhachevsky, captured Elabuga on 26 May, Sarapul on 2 June and Izevsk on the 7th and continued to push forward. See main article: Revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion. In Central Asia, Red Army troops continued to face resistance into 1923, where basmachi (armed bands of Islamic guerrillas) had formed to fight the Bolshevik takeover. See main article: White movement, Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War and Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks. By mid-June the Reds were chased from the Crimea and the Odessa area. The signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovskalso resulted in direct Allied interven… In September 1918 Komuch, the Siberian Provisional Government and other local anti-Soviet governments met in Ufa and agreed to form a new Provisional All-Russian Government in Omsk, headed by a Directory of five: two Socialist-Revolutionaries (Nikolai Avksentiev and Vladimir Zenzinov), two Kadets (V. A. Vinogradov and PV Vologodskii) and General Vasily Boldyrev. See main article: Southern Front of the Russian Civil War, North Russia Campaign, Eastern Front of the Russian Civil War and Yakut Revolt. 2006. Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, 1917 Russian Constituent Assembly election, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War, Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks, Declaration of Rights of Nations of Russia, Romanian military intervention in Bessarabia, Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia, Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly, hard fighting with doubtful outcomes took place, Far Eastern Front in the Russian Civil War, Index of articles related to the Russian Revolution and Civil War, Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, Britain and the Origins of the New Europe 1914-1918, The Russian Revolution, Volume II: 1918-1921: From the Civil War to the Consolidation of Power, A People's Tragedy: A History of the Russian Revolution, Civil War in South Russia, 1919–1920: The Defeat of the Whites, The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia, Russia and Nationalism in Central Asia: The Case of Tadzhikistan, Lenin's Terror: The Ideological Origins of Early Soviet State Violence, A Vision Unfulfilled. With World War I, the Bolshevik Revolution, and the Russian Civil War as backdrop, it's an old-fashioned, blood-and-guts narrative, filled with earthly humor and a wealth of colorful ... See full summary » Stars: Rupert Everett, Delphine Forest, F. Murray Abraham, Ben Gazzara. The third period of the war was the extended siege of the last White forces in the Crimea. Leon Trotsky, representing the Bolsheviks, refused at first to sign the treaty while continuing to observe a unilateral cease-fire, following the policy of "No war, no peace". But that does not take into account some other facts: 500,000 soldiers missing, 3 million prisoners of war, 1.1 million disabled, 6 million refugees and tens of thousands of civilian victims. After the treaty, it looked like much of that material would fall into the hands of the Germans. Some sections of Russian society despised the Bolsheviks. William Henry Chamberlin suspected that there were about 50,000. At the same time White troops under Wrangel's command took Tsaritsyn on 17 June 1919. It was supported by the Junker Mutiny in Petrograd but was quickly put down by the Red Guard, notably including the Latvian Rifle Division. Ufa was retaken on 13 March; by mid-April, the White Army stopped at the Glazov–Chistopol–Bugulma–Buguruslan–Sharlyk line. Except where otherwise indicated, Everything.Explained.Today is © Copyright 2009-2020, A B Cryer, All Rights Reserved. Facts about Russian Civil War give the interesting information about the multi war party, which took place after the Russian Empire collapsed. For example, The Soviet Union was producing only 5 % of the cotton, and only 2 % of the iron ore, compared to the production of 1913. They had an agreement with the new Bolshevik government to be evacuated from the Eastern Front via the port of Vladivostok to France. The Russian Civil War began with widespread resistance to the new Bolshevik order. In August, frustrated at continued reports of Red Army troops breaking under fire, Trotsky authorised the formation of barrier troops - stationed behind unreliable Red Army units and given orders to shoot anyone withdrawing from the battle line without authorisation. Some 300,000–500,000 Cossacks were killed or deported during Decossackization, out of a population of around three million. On 20 June Denikin issued his Moscow directive, ordering all AFSR units to prepare for a decisive offensive to take Moscow. Boldyrev, Commander-in-Chief, appointed by the Ufa Directorate. In January 1918, after significant Bolshevik reverses in combat, the future People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, Leon Trotsky headed the reorganization of the Red Guards into a Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in order to create a more effective fighting force. best. Evan Mawdsley suspected that there were more than 12,733, and less than 200,000. The Armed Forces of South Russia were thus created. During the summer Bolshevik power in Siberia was eliminated. The Baku Soviet Commune was established on 13 April. Cambridge. University Press of New England. New York. Due to Red Army successes north of Central Asia, communication with Moscow was re-established and the Bolsheviks were able to claim victory over the White Army in Turkestan. No, the Romanovs were killed the Russian Civil War several months after the Russian Revolution. The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражданская война в России, tr. Lenin considered it "completely certain, that the slightest aid from Finland would have determined the fate of [the city]". Several parts of the former Russian Empire—Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland—were established as sovereign states, with their own civil wars and wars of independence. Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossii) was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The Modern History of Soviet Central Asia. Despite setbacks due to British invasions during 1918, the Bolsheviks continued to make progress in bringing the Central Asian population under their influence. Grebenkin, I.N. Wrangel's fleet evacuated him and his army to Constantinople on 14 November 1920, ending the struggle of Reds and Whites in Southern Russia. In Moscow a Left SR uprising was put down by the Bolsheviks, using Cheka military detachments. The war ended in 1923, in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. Marie. There were violent clashes with troops loyal to the Bolsheviks. Promising an end to the war and "all power to the Soviets," the Bolsheviks then ended dual power by suppressing the Provisional Government in late October, on the eve of the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in what would be the second Revolution of 1917. 978-1-85367-280-4. harv. Book: Volkogonov, Dmitri. Most of the fighting in this period was on a small scale. In July two Left SR and Cheka employees, Blyumkin and Andreyev, assassinated the German ambassador, Count Mirbach. Already on the date of the Revolution, Cossack General Kaledin refused to recognize it and assumed full governmental authority in the Don region, where the Volunteer Army began amassing support. The Soviets engaged non-Russian peoples in Central Asia, like Magaza Masanchi, commander of the Dungan Cavalry Regiment, to fight against the Basmachis. The first period lasted from the Revolution until the Armistice. See main article: October Revolution. Economic loss was also very big.  Baltic German volunteers captured Riga from the Red Latvian Riflemen on 22 May, but the Estonian 3rd Division defeated the Baltic Germans a month later, aiding the establishment of the Republic of Latvia.. Already on the date of the Revolution, Cossack General Alexey Kaledin refused to recognize it and assumed full governmental authority in the Don region, where the Volunteer Army began amassing support. At the end of April and beginning of May the AFSR attacked on all fronts from the Dnepr to the Volga, and by the beginning of the summer they had won numerous battles. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia.The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army.The Red Army was an army of communists.The White Army opposed the communists. In 1920 and 1921, there was little rain which caused serious famine in 1921. Bailey F. M. "Mission to Tashkent" Jonathan Cape 1946. Other forces fought against both these groups or sometimes helped one against the other. Trotsky armed all available workers, men and women, ordering the transfer of military forces from Moscow. Russian and Allied ships evacuated about 40,000 of Denikin's men from Novorossiysk to the Crimea, without horses or any heavy equipment, while about 20,000 men were left behind and either dispersed or captured by the Red Army. Harvard University Press. The Japanese, who had plans to annex the Amur Krai, finally pulled their troops out as Bolshevik forces gradually asserted control over the Russian Far East. Although the Russian army had great numbers, the soldiers were not equipped or trained to fight. 9780195212419. harv. For a time Central Asia was completely cut off from Red Army forces in Siberia. People always remembered their bad results. The remoteness of the Volga Region, the Ural Region, Siberia and the Far East was favorable for the anti-Bolshevik forces, and the Whites set up a number of organizations in the cities of these regions. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. Russian President Vladimir Putin seeks support for ally Bashar al-Assad. The Civil War in the United States began in 1861, after decades of simmering tensions between northern and southern states over slavery, states’ rights and westward expansion. New York. Lenin personally apologized to the Germans for the assassination. Syrian Civil War explained with “Russian Dolls” 10287 Views October 23, 2017 21 Comments Sandbox The Saker The Essential Saker IV: Messianic Narcissism's Agony by a Thousand Cuts The White Russians supported this government body, which lasted several months because of Bolshevik troop isolation from Moscow. They started the Siberian Intervention and otherwise helped the Whites.  Adm. Kolchak lost control of his government shortly after this defeat; White Army forces in Siberia essentially ceased to exist by December. The houses are crumbling. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. With about 5.5 million out of 16 million soldiers killed and wounded, the Russian Empire appears to have suffered less than France and Germany. Generally, the production had fallen to 20% of the production of 1913. The Russian Civil War (Russian: links=no|Гражданская война в России|Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossii; 7 November 1917 – 25 October 1922) was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The White Army almost lost its fighting power. In October 1919 he tried to capture Petrograd in a sudden assault with a force of around 20,000 men. In September 1919 a White offensive was launched against the Tobol front, the last attempt to change the course of events. The Red Army eventually halted this offensive, and Wrangel's troops had to retreat to Crimea in November 1920, pursued by both the Red and Black cavalry and infantry. Under Soviet pressure, the Volunteer Army embarked on the epic Ice March from Yekaterinodar to Kuban on 22 February 1918, where they joined with the Kuban Cossacks to mount an abortive assault on Yekaterinodar. save. 978-0-87451-616-6. harv. On the Volga, Col. Kappel's White detachment captured Kazan on 7 August, but the Reds re-captured the city on 8 September 1918 following a counteroffensive.  At the start of the civil war, former Tsarist officers comprised three-quarters of the Red Army officer-corps. It ended Russia's involvement in World War I, and at the same time, led to the Russian Civil War in which Bolshevik 'red' forces fought conservative 'white' forces between 1917 and 1922. For example, cotton production fell to 5%, and iron to 2%, of pre-war levels. The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded and machines damaged. The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army. London. Many soldiers of the White Army had gathered in Crimea. He himself gave up command after the loss of Omsk and designated Gen. Grigory Semyonov as the new leader of the White Army in Siberia. , At the end of the Civil War the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. The Bolsheviks and their Left SR allies were opposed to it, but on 25 July the majority of the Soviet voted to call in the British and the Bolsheviks resigned. This time Red forces had no escape, and by the beginning of 1919 the whole Northern Caucasus was controlled by the Volunteer Army. Sort by. The latter, only 205miles from Moscow, was the closest the AFSR would come to its target. The main body of White forces, the Volunteers and the Don Army, pulled back towards the Don, to Rostov. Kaledin of the Don Cossacks and General Grigory Semenov of the Siberian Cossacks were prominent among them. In 1920, one had to give 1,200 rubles to buy one US dollar. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. When Kolchak's army in the east began to retreat in June and July, the bulk of the Red Army, free now from any serious danger from Siberia, was directed against Denikin. View Entire Discussion (0 Comments) Pursued into the Crimea by Makhno's troops, Wrangel went over to the defensive in the Crimea. Not long after this Kolchak was arrested by the disaffected Czechoslovak Corps as he traveled towards Irkutsk without the protection of the army, and turned over to the socialist Political Centre in Irkutsk. "Welcome to the new Russia, Captain Price." More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine or the Anarchist Black Army led by Nestor Makhno. Despite this setback, Moscow was loath to aid Makhno and the Black Army and refused to provide arms to anarchist forces in Ukraine. Although this move seemed to solidify Bolshevik power in Central Asia, more troubles soon arose for the Red Army as the Allied Forces began to intervene. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The number of horses declined from 35 million in 1916 to 24 million in 1920 and cattle from 58 to 37 million. These groups were … 0-674-00907-X. Other forces fought against both these groups or sometimes helped one against the other. During this first period the Bolsheviks took control of Central Asia out of the hands of the Provisional Government and White Army, setting up a base for the Communist Party in the Steppe and Turkestan, where nearly two million Russian settlers were located. War because their Army was winning on all three fronts industrial goods to... 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