cadmium exposure health effects

Cadmium exerts toxic effects on the kidney, the skeletal system and the respiratory system and is classified as a human carcinogen. Workers may be harmed from exposure to cadmium. Acute exposure to cadmium fumes may cause flu-like symptoms including chills, fever, and muscle ache sometimes referred to as "the cadmium blues." Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such … Acute inhalation exposure (high levels over a short period of time) to cadmium can result in flu-like symptoms (chills, fever, and muscle pain) and can damage the lungs. Breathing air with lower levels of cadmium over long periods of time (for years) results in a build-up of cadmium in the kidney, and if sufficiently high, may result in kidney disease. Tubular damage may develop at much lower levels than previously estimated, as shown in this report. Symptoms may resolve after a week if there is no respiratory damage. Exposure to cadmium primarily occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food and water and, to a significant extent, through inhalation and cigarette smoking. Author information: (1)Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China. Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure to cadmium through inhalation of fumes or dust in occupational settings has long been known to cause adverse health effects on lungs and kidneys. Gut microbiota, which function in production of nutrients, metabolic processing, breakdown of toxins, and protection from infections, are involved in a host’s health at various life stages. For additional information regarding carcinogens, see OSHA's. Cadmium, when introduced into the body, Long-term, lower level exposure results in cadmium accumulation in the kidneys and thyroid gland, and can contribute to thyroid issues, kidney disease, infertility, uterine fibroids, and other reproductive tract diseases if the build-up is high enough. Bear in mind that not all forms of cadmium present the same dangers. %PDF-1.5 %���� 0 It is a highly toxic carcinogenic that is harmful to most of the body’s systems, especially to the lungs, bones, and kidneys. � !w] Low-dose exposure to elevated levels of cadmium over a long period of time has different health consequences than a single high dose exposure. Cadmium exposure and its health effects: a 19-year follow-up study of a polluted area in China. Who is exposed to cadmium? Cadmium exerts toxic effects on the kidneys as well as the skeletal and respiratory systems. Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. 3. 296 0 obj <> endobj h�b```b``�f`e`���π �,@Q�&��N@u��v@�\֮�QV���rݎqV��.��V��V����P�� �������H�،>6� ��M �6*���8x�_,��d��f��P� �xN)iF �b.�:@���A�;X�u�``�����(@� H( Cadmium is also used in refining zinc metal and its byproduct is one of the leading causes of cadmium poisoning. This leaflet tells you about the possible health hazards of different forms of cadmium, the preventative measures your employer needs to apply and the precautions you should take. The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. EXPOSURE TO CADMIUM: A MAJOR PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN . Nevertheless, other toxicological effects of early-life cadmium exposure, especially the long-term effects in later life, should be investigated. %%EOF A few studies in animals indicate that younger animals absorb more cadmium than adults. This review provides an update on cad-mium exposure levels and the potential adverse health effects they may elicit in adult popu-lations. What are the potential health effects of Cadmium? large health burden associated with exposure to cadmium at levels experienced by many populations worldwide. Excretion from the body is limited. The critical health effect of cadmium is on the kidneys where it damages the blood filtration system of the kidneys, which results in proteins being excreted in urine. EXPOSURE TO CADMIUM: A MAJOR PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis which are observed at adult age. It is generally present in the environment at low levels; however, human activity has greatly increased those levels. Inhalation. Efforts to reduce both occupational and nonoccupational exposure to cadmium are needed to prevent cadmium-induced renal injury. For a comprehensive discussion of cadmium's health effects, see OSHA Preambles to Final Rules – Cadmium. The severity of the effects depends on duration and magnitude of exposure. HUMAN EXPOSURES AND HEALTH EFFECTS Non-occupational exposure occurs mainly from active and passive inhalation of tobacco smoke and from consumption of contaminated food and water. Occupational exposure to cadmium can lead to a variety of adverse health effects including cancer. Acute inhalation exposure (high levels over a short period of time) to cadmium can result in flu-like symptoms (chills, fever, and muscle pain) and can damage the lungs. For chronic cadmium exposure, effects occur mainly on the kidneys, lungs, and bones. A relationship has been established between cadmium air exposure and proteinuria (an increase in the presence of low molecular weight proteins in the urine and an indication of … Effects of Cadmium Exposure. Studies about the relationship between cumulative exposure to cadmium and health effects should be encouraged. In industry, it's regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and it has a very low permissible exposure level. Although at low levels, chronic cadmium exposure may induce renal dysfunction. It is classified as a human carcinogen. Occupational Safety & Health Administration, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, OSHA Brief - Medical Evaluation of Renal Effects of Cadmium Exposures, Worker Notification Program -Cadmium Recovery Workers (Cadmium), Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), Safety and Health Topics Page on Carcinogens, Severe Storm and Flood Recovery Assistance. 1,2. 1990). Cadmium and its compounds are highly toxic and exposure to this metal is known to cause cancer and targets the body's cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, neurological, reproductive, and respiratory systems. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The health effects in children are expected to be similar to the effects seen in adults (kidney, lung, and bone damage depending on the type of exposure). Health effects of cadmium exposure - a review of the literature and a risk estimate Studies on experimental animals have indicated that a single high dose of cadmium can give rise to necrosis of the testicles. Cadmium can travel long The health effects associated with cadmium exposure depend on the way people are exposed to cadmium, how much has entered the person’s body, how long the person has been exposed for and how the person’s body responds to the exposure. human health effects from cadmium exposure: comparison between persons living in cadmium-contaminated and non-contaminated areas in northwestern thailand. Human Health. Excretion from the body is limited. Sufficient cadmium exposure can also lead to decreased GFR and chronic renal failure manifested by: aminoaciduria, glucosuria, hypercalcuria, hyperphosphaturia, polyuria, and; reduced buffering capacity for acids (Jarup 2002). Occupational exposure to cadmium can lead to a variety of adverse health effects including cancer. Workers. In fact, cadmium was the primary cause of Itai-itai disease (or “It hurts-it hurts disease”), a health disaster that occurred in 1912 in the Toyama Prefecture of … Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Many studies on the health effects of environmental Cd pollution, especially its adverse effects on the bone and kidney (Kido et al., 1992, Haswell-Elkins et al., 2008, Ning et al., 2006, Chen et al., 2008, Satarug and Moore, 2004, Schutte et al., 2008), have been conducted after “Itai-itai” disease occurred in Japan in the 1950s. Excretion from the body is limited. According to current knowledge, renal tubular damage is probably the critical health effect of cadmium exposure, both in the general population and in occupationally exposed workers. It is naturally occurring in the environment as a pollutant that is derived from agricultural and industrial sources. Once cadmium enters the body, it is stored in the liver and kidneys, and then slowly excreted in urine. Swaddiwudhipong W, Nguntra P, Kaewnate Y, Mahasakpan P, Limpatanachote P, Aunjai T, … endstream endobj startxref Chronic exposure (low level over an extended period of time) can result in kidney, bone and lung disease. Cadmium produces a number of health concerns and is a known carcinogen. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic non-essential transition metal that poses a health risk for both humans and animals. �@�5�$�1012nq�G�g�� Cadmium exerts toxic effects on the kidney, the skeletal system and the respiratory system and is classified as a human carcinogen.1–4 It is generally present in the environment at low levels; however, human activity has greatly increased levels in environmental media relevant Long-term intake of high doses of cadmium from polluted rice induced “Itai-itai disease”, a disease of the kidneys and bones, that was recognized in the Japanese population after World War II [ 1 ]. endstream endobj 297 0 obj <>/Metadata 14 0 R/OCProperties<>/OCGs[318 0 R]>>/PageLabels 292 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 294 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/StructTreeRoot 46 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 298 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 299 0 obj <>stream Cadmium exposure has been observed disturbing calcium metabolism too, which can then cause bone softening or osteomalacia and osteoporosis. Breathing air with very high levels of cadmium can severely damage the lungs and may cause death. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Cadmium is found in cadmium fumes (CdO) and cadmium compounds. h޼Wmo�8�O��V+��8��B�PZNG�J�z�CZ\-�d����݌�@eKau�\�3㙱�q��'�H�q"#>���,�Q����0j™�a�.4J��K�Tj�). Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Health Effects. It is generally present in the environment at low levels; however, human activity has greatly increased levels in environmental media relevant to population exposure. A very intense exposure may cause hemorrhaging of the digestive tract and severe damage to the liver, kidneys and heart, resulting in death. We focus first on key issues under-pinning health risk assessment of low-level 341 0 obj <>stream h�bbd``b`f��@���`-�=[@� �� n/�X�n Iȁ����J1H$�� 317 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<5504554CA889494F8E42EC6A45DA6697>]/Index[296 46]/Info 295 0 R/Length 97/Prev 57482/Root 297 0 R/Size 342/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Abdominal cramps and pain may also occur, combined with diarrhea. Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Human beings get exposed to cadmium through the foods they take and in the places they live or work. Worker exposure to cadmium can occur in all industry sectors but mostly in manufacturing and construction. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis which are observed at adult age. Acute health effects, such as flu-like symptoms, intestinal tract ailments and lung irritation, can be caused by intense short-term exposure. Almost all humans carry a significant body burden of cadmium, generally increasing with age. Ingestion of a large dose of cadmium can cause severe gastrointestinal effects. Cadmium metal (Cd) is a silver-white solid, tinged with blue. Health Effects of Exposures to Cadmium May 2, 2020 May 2, 2019 by Your Health Remedy's Staff Cadmium is a chemical element that is extremely dangerous to human health is present all around us: at work, at home and quite often, even on our plates. The widespread industrial use of cadmium has led to the exposure to human beings, animals, and the environment. Cadmium exposure may also potentiate the development of glomerulopathy in diabetic populations (Buchet et al. There is no safe margin of cadmium exposure and the need to lower human exposure is desperate. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. The following webpages provide additional information on the health effects of cadmium. 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